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Welcome to India, Mr. Bezos. Here’s an Antitrust Complaint.

MUMBAI, India — Amazon’s founder and chief executive, Jeff Bezos, is visiting India this week for the first time in over five years.

Instead of garlands, India’s government is welcoming him with a new antitrust case.

The Competition Commission of India, the country’s antitrust regulator, opened a formal investigation on Monday into the practices of Amazon and Flipkart, the Indian e-commerce giant mostly owned by Walmart.

The inquiry was prompted by complaints from an association of small traders, after several rounds of regulations failed to curb the market power of the two e-commerce platforms, particularly in the online sales of mobile phones. Indian merchants have lobbied Prime Minister Narendra Modi to take tougher action against the companies.

India requires foreign-owned e-commerce firms to be neutral marketplaces, much like eBay, to protect local retailers and distributors from deep-pocketed competition. In the United States, Amazon both operates a marketplace and sells many products — including diapers, batteries and books — like a traditional retailer, buying them wholesale and then reselling them to consumers. Under Indian law, the site is supposed to rely on independent sellers who post their products on Amazon.

But both Amazon and Flipkart give preference to some sellers, the Indian regulator said, by using affiliated companies, discounts and their global relationships with manufacturers to influence who sells what and at what price.

For example, Amazon sells its own brands, like AmazonBasics luggage and Solimo paper products, on its Indian site through companies in which it holds an equity stake. And Flipkart features a small group of preferred, high-volume sellers on its service.

The commission will investigate whether those arrangements violate India’s antitrust law.

India is one of Amazon’s fastest-growing markets as well as an important location for its customer service and research operations. But Mr. Bezos has made just three trips to the country.

On Wednesday, he is expected to discuss opportunities for small businesses on Amazon at a conference in New Delhi. He is also expected to meet Mr. Modi and plans to travel to Mumbai, home to India’s Bollywood film industry, to rub elbows with Bollywood stars like the actor Shah Rukh Khan and the director Zoya Akhtar.

In a statement, Amazon said, “We welcome the opportunity to address allegations made about Amazon; we are confident in our compliance, and will cooperate fully with C.C.I.”

Flipkart said it was complying with all laws in India governing e-commerce and noted the large number of sellers on its platform. “We take pride in democratizing e-commerce in India,” the company said in a statement.

Amazon, the world’s biggest online retailer, faces other antitrust inquiries around the world. The scrutiny in Europe and the United States has also focused on its relationship to its third-party sellers, which account for about 60 percent of sales.

The Federal Trade Commission and the House Judiciary Committee are examining whether Amazon treats unfairly sellers that do not use some of Amazon’s services, such as its fulfillment network. The European Union’s antitrust commission has opened an investigation into whether Amazon misuses information from its marketplace sellers to decide what products it sells directly to customers, including its own private-label offerings.

Amazon has maintained that it faces strong competitors, such as Walmart, and is a small player in the overall retail market, which is still dominated by physical stores.

Karen Weise contributed reporting from Seattle.

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Rocket Launches, Trips to Mars and More 2020 Space and Astronomy Events

If you follow space news and astronomy, the past year offered no shortage of highlights. Astronomers provided humanity’s first glimpse of a black hole. China landed on the moon’s far side. And the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon landing inspired us to look ahead to our future in space.

The year to come will be no less eventful:

  • No fewer than four missions to Mars could leave Earth this summer.

  • NASA may finally launch astronauts into orbit aboard capsules built by SpaceX and Boeing.

  • We expect to learn more secrets about the interstellar comet Borisov.

  • And private companies are working to demonstrate new abilities in space.

However much you love space and astronomy, it can be challenging to keep up with the latest news in orbit and beyond. That’s why we’ve put dates for some of these events on The Times’s Astronomy and Space Calendar, which has been updated for 2020. Subscribe on your personal digital calendar to be automatically synced with our updates all year long. (We promise not to collect any personal information from your private calendar when you sign up.)

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Below are some of the launches, space science and other events to look forward to.

Roughly every two years, the orbits of Earth and Mars come closer than usual. Space agencies on Earth often send missions to the red planet during that window, and in 2020 four such launches are scheduled.

Three of the missions will carry rovers. The United States is launching the soon-to-be-renamed Mars 2020 rover, which also carries a small helicopter. It will try to land in Jezero Crater, which once contained a lake and could preserve evidence of life, if life ever existed there.

Neither China, Europe nor Russia has deployed a rover on the Martian surface. But they will try, in a pair of missions. China’s mission, its first on its own to the red planet, includes an orbiter in addition to a rover. The European Space Agency and Russia cooperated to build Rosalind Franklin, a rover named for the English chemist whose work was essential to finding the structure of DNA.

The rovers could be joined on Mars by Hope, an orbiter commissioned by the United Arab Emirates. It is being built in Colorado, and is to be launched on a Japanese rocket. If it succeeds, it could represent a new model for space programs, in which small, wealthy countries pay for off-the-shelf spacecraft to get themselves into orbit and beyond.

Since the space shuttle’s last flight, in 2011, NASA has relied on Russia’s Soyuz spacecraft for trips to and from the International Space Station. In 2019, NASA hoped to begin flying astronauts aboard capsules built by two private companies, SpaceX and Boeing, but persistent delays knocked back the timeline another year.

NASA’s commercial crew program could finally achieve its goal in 2020. SpaceX’s Crew Dragon is scheduled to conduct an uncrewed test of its in-flight abort system on Jan. 11. If the test succeeds, the capsule could carry astronauts to the space station not long after.

Boeing’s Starliner experienced problems during its first uncrewed test flight in December and was unable to dock with the space station. An upcoming review of that test will determine whether Starliner might still be able to fly into orbit with astronauts in the first half of this year.

Virgin Galactic, the space-plane company run by Richard Branson, conducted two successful test flights with crew aboard in the past 13 months. In the year to come, the company could carry its first passengers to the edge of space. Blue Origin, the company founded by Jeff Bezos of Amazon, may follow suit; it has conducted 12 crewless tests of its capsule for short tourist jumps to suborbital space. For now, only the very wealthy will be able to afford such jaunts.

Other private companies are looking to Earth orbit for the future of internet service. SpaceX launched 120 Starlink satellites in 2019 and could launch many more in 2020. A competitor, OneWeb, could send more of its satellites to orbit in the coming year, too. These companies are blazing the trail for orbital internet — a business that Amazon and Apple are also pursuing — and upsetting astronomers, who fear that large constellations of internet satellites will imperil scientific study of the solar system and stars.

In September, a comet called Borisov 2I was spotted in our solar system, only the second ever confirmed interstellar object. Unlike Oumuamua, which was spotted in 2017 only as it was leaving the solar system, astronomers caught sight of Borisov and its 100,000-mile-long tail as it flew toward the sun, before it turned and began its exit.

In 2020, scientists will continue to point ground and orbiting telescopes at Borisov as it speeds back toward the stars beyond — unless, as some astronomers hope, it explodes into fragments after being heated by the sun. Whatever happens, other interstellar visitors are sure to follow, and professional sky gazers hope to find them with powerful new telescopes in the years ahead.

Before the end of 2020, the moon could see one more visitor from Earth. Chang’e-5, a robotic probe built by China, aims to collect moon rock and soil samples and send them back to Earth. The last set of lunar samples was gathered in 1976 by a Soviet spacecraft.

The year to come may also bring greater clarity about American designs for returning to the moon. NASA is aiming to put the first woman and the next man on the moon by 2024, with a program called Artemis. A wide range of political, budgetary and technological hurdles stand in the way of meeting that ambitious timeline.